Publish Date: 2023-03-08 17:08:19
Here's a wrap up of the peer-reviewed publications from our faculty members in the last 3 months.
Suma Athreye, Abhijit Sengupta, Oladimei J. Odentunde. "Academic Entrepreneurial Engagement with Weak Institutional Support: Roles of Motivation, Intention and Perceptions ". Studies in Higher Education, March 2023
Abstract: The paper investigates the potential impact of entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurial intention and academic researchers’ perceptions of departmental and university support on academic entrepreneurial engagement in a context of weak or missing institutional support. A conceptual model linking motivation, intention and perceptions to entrepreneurial engagement is developed and tested on primary data collected from academic researchers in Nigeria. We find that while entrepreneurial motivation strongly influences entrepreneurial intentions of researchers, the link between intention and engagement is weaker. Perceptions of departmental entrepreneurial orientation positively mediates a significant proportion of the latter link. In contrast, perceptions about the university’s supportive framework and facilities play a relatively weaker role. Subsequently, the implications of these findings on policies and incentives for entrepreneurial academics and universities in weak institutional settings are explored.
Nandana Sengupta, Vidya Subramanian, Anwesh Mukhopadhyay, Arul Scaria. "A Global South perspective for ethical algorithms and the State". Nature Machine Intelligence , Feb 2023
Abstract: We explore the intersection between algorithms and the State from the perspectives of legislative action, public perception and the use of AI in public administration. Taking India as a case study, we discuss the potential fallout from the absence of rigorous scholarship on such questions for countries in the Global South.
Yuno Tajima, Shizuka Hashimoto, Rajarshi Dasgupta, Yasuo Takahashi. "Spatial characterization of cultural ecosystem services in the Ishigaki Island of Japan: A comparison between residents and tourists". Ecosystem Services, Feb 2023
Abstract: Culturall Ecosystem Services (CES) are non-material benefits that are indispensable for the health and well-being of communities. CES are often spatially explicit and fluctuate according to the knowledge, beliefs, and perception of users of the location. Therefore, understanding the spatial patterns of CES perceived by people from different backgrounds is important for decision-makers to carry out proactive landscape planning. In this study, we investigated the differences in the perception of CES between residents and tourists on Ishigaki Island, Japan. The study employed a Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) approach to spatially present the respective perceptions of residents and tourists regarding six types of CES, namely recreational, therapeutic, educational, spiritual, aesthetic, and historic CES, that are recognized as key contributors to human health and well-being. For data collection, we employed a combination of household-level postal surveys and in-person questionnaire surveys targeting residents (n = 410) and tourists (n = 102), respectively. A series of statistical and spatial analyses was conducted on the survey results to understand the influence of the duration of residence and the frequency of visits in shaping the perceptions of CES, as well as the relationship between perceived CES and land-use types. This included the contribution of protected areas to the delivery of CES. The results showed that the average number of locations indicated by residents was significantly higher than that indicated by the tourists, resulting in density maps with distinct spatial patterns. In particular, the spatial pattern of CES identified by tourists was considerably simpler than that recognized by residents and centered on two popular tourist spots. As per the elements of landscapes and seascapes, the perception of “aesthetic,” “recreational,” “therapeutic,” and “educational” CES by residents was associated with “forest” and “sea” and that of “spiritual” and “historic” was associated with “forest” and “farmland.” In contrast, the CES perception of “recreational,” “educational,” “therapeutic,” “aesthetic,” and “historic” by tourists was associated with “sea” and “forest.” “Spiritual” CES was associated with “forest” and “sea.” Lastly, a higher proportion of “aesthetic” CES locations were identified within protected areas compared to outside the areas. Overall, our findings revealed that residents and tourists perceive and appreciate the numerous CES arising from landscapes and seascapes of the island differently. This indicates a possible trade-off resulting from land or sea developments to the benefit among stakeholders, for example, tourists. Hence, to sustain CES that underpin equitable health and well-being benefits, spatial planning should consider the different perceptions of stakeholders, particularly of residents and tourists, regarding CES types and locations.
Pooja Prasad, Annelieke Duker, Charlotte de Fraiture, Pieter van der Zaag. "Irrigation development under uncertainty: A call for adaptive investment pathways". Environmental Science and Policy, Jan 2023
Abstract: There is an urgent need in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to enhance irrigation access to meet the challenges of growing population and climate risk. To achieve this, big investments are currently planned in large irrigation infrastructure. We believe there is danger in following this conventional approach, which requires big lumpsum investments, locking large capital into projects that do not adapt to deep uncertainties from climatic or socio-political factors. Instead, in this Perspective article, we propose an alternate “adaptive investment pathways” (AdIP) approach for planning stepwise investments towards desired objectives, implemented progressively depending on how the future unfolds, in order to gain flexibility. AdIP extends the adaptation pathways concept, which refers to a sequence of actions to be taken in response to a changing reality, and applies it to the context of development under uncertainty. Monitoring and learning is at the heart of this approach, which ensures that the plan adapts as new knowledge becomes available. Thus, AdIP internalizes risk and reduces chances of failures. For financial institutions backing development projects, following a pathway of smaller de-centralized investments lowers risk and incorporates a learning approach that allows re-thinking and adapting along the path. We illustrate the AdIP approach using the case of ephemeral sand river based small-scale irrigation in the drylands of SSA. We conclude that in face of deep uncertainties, the path to successful irrigation development in SSA requires a shift from making few large upfront investments in large-scale projects to making large numbers of smaller investments that assure flexibility.
Krishna, H., Kashyap, Y., Dutt, D., Sagar, A.D. and Malhotra, A. "Understanding India’s low-carbon energy technology startup landscape". Nature Energy, Dec 2022
Abstract: Low-carbon energy technology (LCET) startups could play a key role in accelerating India’s decarbonization. Yet, our understanding of the LCET startup landscape and what shapes it remains low. Here we provide an analysis of the Indian LCET startup landscape to fill this gap. Our descriptive analysis of quantitative data on investment and patenting activities of LCET startups from 2010 to 2020 and qualitative data from 25 semi-structured interviews shows a substantial increase in investment and patenting activity, particularly after 2017, driven in large part by market-creation measures undertaken by the Indian government. However, there are large differences between LCET startups in different sub-sectors and core value-creating activities. Our findings suggest that the level of technological capabilities moderates the relationship between market-creation measures and innovation outcomes—thus highlighting the need to complement market-creation policies with long-term measures to strengthen technological capabilities. Furthermore, we propose a research agenda to improve our understanding of LCET entrepreneurship in developing economies.